EXPERTISES

Changes in climate will have a profound impact on both human activities and ecosystems.







DEPARTMENT OF CHUQUISACA





Chuquisaca is located between the departments with the lowest human development indices of the country, which makes it an ejector region of human resources.

According to the Census of 2012, the department of Chuquisaca has a total population of 600,728 inhabitants. This represents an increase of only 13.0% compared to 2001, the second lowest growth rate after Potosí.

A recent study by UNFPA noted that the region is characterized as an "ejector of potential labour force". This is a phenomenon that is more than alarming because the situation affects mostly young people who first migrated from rural areas to the capital and then, finding no opportunity seek other destinations inside or outside the country.

The first goal of the people moving from one department to another is to reach a more prosperous department, such as Santa Cruz, La Paz or Cochabamba.

The migration extends beyond our borders in places preferred by the people of Chuquisaca like Argentina, Chile, Brazil, the United States and Spain, although the latter began returning nationals because of its deep economic crisis.

Note that in recent years, the type of migrant of Chuquisaca refers not only to the residents of the rural area, peasant and extreme poverty. It also includes capital`s young professionals having academic titles and not able to find a place to perform in their specialty.

Experts agree that one of the causes that make the department of Chuquisaca an ejector of population is the low quality of its soil; most of the geography of the department is composed of hills enclosing narrow valleys with insufficient superficies for the agricultural development (smallholdings), which is the base for the development of these regions.

However, according to a recent report of the Millennium Foundation, in recent years Chuquisaca also benefited the economic boom. But despite this, it failed to narrow the gap with the national average per capita income. In 2011, Bolivia`s per capita income was $ 2,237, while the one in Chuquisaca was $ 1,563.

Although the education improvements with a literacy rate of 89.0%, if we compare this result to the rest of the departments we see that the department of Chuquisaca is in the last position. For the basic services the access to piped water supply curiously decreased. While in 2001 53.9% of families received this service, in 2012 the figure dropped to 39.1%. In the same way, the access to electricity reached 56.6%, not just putting it below the national average of 78.2% but in the last position in comparison to the other departments. Finally the availability of health services reached 56.1% of households in the department.

Household Survey 2011

Some interesting data from the household survey for the department show that the 36.3% of the employed population in Chuquisaca belong to the group of the family workers or to the group of the apprentices without pay. Another 31.4% are self-employed and 17.7% are employees. According to the economic activity 52.1% of people employed are working in the agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing and only 10.0% in business.

The job situation is precarious. The main labour market is familiar with 67.7% of the total, followed in importance by the business with 10.9%, then the semi-entrepreneurial with 10.4% and finally the state with 9.9%.

According to the household survey of 2011 the average monthly labour income in the department was Bs. 1,088. This level was below the national average of Bs. 1,617. However we must clarify that this salary is an average between the rural and urban areas. The annual average wage in the rural area is Bs. 1,400 because their main activity is agriculture. Obviously this affects the levels of poverty and inequality, and therefore it is not strange that inequality in the department, measured by the Gini coefficient, was the second highest in the country (0.51).